data networking system


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Cisco Systems, Inc. is an American multinational corporation headquartered in San Jose, California, that designs, manufactures, and sells networking equipment. The stock was added to the Dow Jones Industrial Average on June 8, 2009, and is also included in the S&P 500 Index, the Russell 1000 Index, NASDAQ-100 Index and the Russell 1000 Growth Stock Index.


Internet and silicon intelligence

The phenomenal growth of the Internet in mid-to-late 1990s quickly changed the telecom landscape. As the Internet Protocol (IP) became widely adopted, the importance of multi-protocol routing declined. Nevertheless, Cisco managed to catch the Internet wave, with products ranging from modem access shelves (AS5200) to core GSR routers that quickly became vital to Internet service providers and by 1998 gave Cisco de facto monopoly in this critical segment. In late March 2000, at the height of the dot-com bubble, Cisco became the most valuable company in the world, with a market capitalization of more than US$500 billion. In July 2014, with a market cap of about US$129 billion, it is still one of the most valuable companies. Meanwhile, the growth of Internet bandwidth requirements kept challenging traditional, software-based packet processing architectures. The perceived complexity of programming routing functions in silicon, led to formation of several startups determined to find new ways to process IP and MPLS packets entirely in hardware and blur boundaries between routing and switching. One of them, Juniper Networks, shipped their first product in 1999 and by 2000 chipped away about 30% from Cisco SP Market share. Cisco answered the challenge with homegrown ASICs and fast processing cards for GSR routers and Catalyst 6500 switches. In 2004, Cisco also started migration to new high-end hardware CRS-1 and software architecture IOS-XR.


The Human Network

As part of a massive rebranding campaign in 2006, Cisco Systems adopted the shortened name "Cisco" and created "The Human Network" advertising campaign. These efforts were meant to make Cisco a "household" brand—a strategy designed to support the low-end Linksys products and future consumer products (such as Flip Video camera acquired by Cisco in 2009). On the more traditional business side, Cisco continued to develop its extensive enterprise-focused routing, switching and security portfolio. Quickly growing importance of Ethernet also influenced the company's product lines, prompting the company to morph the successful Catalyst 6500 Ethernet switch into all-purpose Cisco 7600 routing platform.[19] However, limits of IOS and aging Crescendo architecture also forced Cisco to look at merchant silicon in the carrier Ethernet segment. This resulted in a new ASR9000 product family intended to consolidate company's carrier ethernet and subscriber management business around EZChip-based hardware and IOS-XR. Cisco also expanded into new markets by acquisition—one example being a 2009 purchase of mobile specialist Starent Networks that resulted in ASR5000 product line.

   A Cisco facility in Chennai, India. India is one of the company's largest overseas markets and production centers. Throughout the mid-2000s, Cisco also built a significant presence in India, establishing its Globalization Centre East in Bengaluru for $1 billion, and planning that 20% of Cisco's leaders would be based there. However, Cisco continued to be challenged by both domestic Alcatel-Lucent, Juniper Networks and overseas competitors Huawei. Due to lower-than-expected profit in 2011, Cisco was forced to reduce annual expenses by $1 billion. The company cut around 3,000 employees with an early-retirement program who accepted buyout and planned to eliminate as many as 10,000 jobs (around 14 percent of the 73,400 total employees before curtailment). During the 2011 analyst call, Cisco's CEO John Chambers called out several competitors by name, including Juniper and HP. On 24 July 2012, Cisco received approval from the EU to acquire NDS (a TV software developer) for USD 5 billion. This acquisition signaled the end of the "The Human Network" strategy as Cisco found itself backing off from household hardware like Linksys and Flip into the cloud and software market.


The Internet of Everything

Cisco launches its first global re-branding campaign for the first time in six years with its "TOMORROW starts here" and "Internet of Everything" advertising campaigns. These efforts were designed to position Cisco for the next ten years into a global leader in connecting the previously unconnected and facilitate the IP address connectivity of people, data, processes and things through cloud computing applications and services. On July 23, 2013, Cisco Systems announced a definitive agreement to acquire Sourcefire for $2.7 billion. On August 14, 2013, Cisco Systems announced it is going to cut 4,000 jobs, which is roughly 6% of the company, starting in 2014. Cisco is opening an Internet of Everything research centre in Toronto, Ontario. Cisco Systems has seen a huge drop in export sales because of spying fears from the American National Security Agency using backdoors in its products. On August 13, 2014, the company announced it was laying off another 6,000 workers or 8% of its global workforce, as part of a second restructuring.

Small businesses:

A Cisco ASM/2-32EM router deployed at CERN in 1987, A Cisco 7960G IP Phone , Cisco UCS blade servers.

Hardware :
Alarm conditions typically include inputs from other building systems such as the fire alarm or HVAC system, which may trigger an emergency 'all lights on' command for example.

Datacenter products:

Nexus Switches (1000v, 2000, 3000, 4000, 5000, 6000, 7000), MDS, Unified Computing System (UCS) Routers, including: 800 Series, Integrated Services Router (ISR) (1800, 2800, 3800), ISR G2 (1900, 2900, 3900), 2500 Series, 7200, 7600, 12000, ASR (900, 1000, 9000), Network Convergence System (NCS) 6000, and Carrier Routing System (CRS-1, CRS-3, CRS-X) Security appliances: ASA 5500, PIX 500 series, Cisco Security Manager, Email Security Appliance (ESA), Web Security Appliance (WSA), Content Security Management Appliance (SMA) Catalyst switches: 1900 Series, 2900 / 2950 / 2960 / 3500XL Series, 3550 / 3750 Series, 3000 Series, Catalyst 4500/4900, 5000/5500 Series, 6500 Series, 6800 Series Teleworker/Remote Connectivity—Cisco LAN2LAN Personal Office for ISDN, VPN 3000 Concentrators Cisco Wireless LAN products—Access Points, PCI/PCMCIA/USB Wireless LAN Adaptors, Wireless LAN Controllers (WLC), Wireless LAN Solutions Engines (WLSE), Wireless Control System (WCS), Location Appliances, Long range antennas.

Servers / Application Appliances:

Cisco Wide Area Application Services (WAAS) Unified Computing: Cisco Unified Computing System (UCS) virtual server platform: with VMWare virtualization system run servers on Cisco hardware Cisco Application Control Engine (ACE): Application Delivery Controller


CLEO (Cisco Low Earth Orbit router)

IRIS (Cisco Internet Routing in Space)


  • Cisco Call Manager / Call Manager Express.
  • Cisco Unified Communications Manager.
  • Cisco Unified Operations Manager (CUOM)—is a NMS for voice. It features real-time monitoring of all system elements, and performs automatic discovery for the entire system and provides contextual diagnostics for troubleshooting.
  • Cisco IP Communicator is a VoIP softphone software application. It can register with a Cisco Unified Communications Manager or Cisco Unified Communications manager express using either SIP or Cisco's proprietary Skinny Client Control Protocol.
  • WebEx Collaboration Tools


Alcatel-Lucent (French pronunciation: ​[alkatɛl lysɛnt]) is a French global telecommunications equipment company, headquartered in Boulogne-Billancourt, France. The company focuses on fixed, mobile, and converged networking hardware, IP technologies, software, and services. Alcatel-Lucent has operations in more than 130 countries. In 2012 it was ranked technology supersector leader in the Dow Jones Sustainability Index.

Alcatel-Lucent is under the leadership of chief executive officer Michel Combes and the non-executive chairman of the board is Philippe Camus. Camus joined the company in the third quarter of 2008, alongside Ben Verwaayen as CEO, after Alcatel-Lucent's first CEO Patricia Russo and first chairman Serge Tchuruk resigned. For 2010, the company posted revenues of €15.996 billion and a reported net loss of €334 million. For 2011, the company posted revenues of €15.068 billion and a reported profit of €1.095 billion. For 2012, the company posted revenues of €14.446 billion and a reported loss of €1.374 billion. After seven consecutive years of negative cash flows, in October 2013 the company announced plans to slash 10,000 employees, or 14% of the total current 72,000 workforce, as a part of a €1 billion cost reduction effort. Alcatel-Lucent was formed when Alcatel merged with Lucent Technologies on December 1, 2006. However, the predecessors of the company have been a part of telecommunications industry since the late 19th century. The company has roots in two early telecommunications companies: La Compagnie Générale d'Electricité (CGE) and the Western Electric Manufacturing Company.

VoIP services

Cisco became a major provider of Voice over IP to enterprises, and is now moving into the home user market through its acquisitions of Scientific Atlanta and Linksys. Scientific Atlanta provides VoIP equipment to cable service providers such as Time Warner, Cablevision, Rogers Communications, UPC, and others; Linksys has partnered with companies such as Skype, Microsoft and Yahoo! to integrate consumer VoIP services with wireless and cordless phones.

Cisco Career Certifications

Cisco Systems also sponsors a line of IT Professional certifications for Cisco products. There are five levels of certification: Entry (CCENT), Associate (CCNA / CCDA), Professional (CCNP / CCDP), Expert (CCIE / CCDE), and recently Architect, as well as eight different paths, Routing & Switching, Design, Network Security, Service Provider, Service Provider Operations, Storage Networking, Voice, Datacenter and Wireless. A number of specialist technician, sales and datacenter certifications are also available. Cisco also provides training for these certifications via a portal called the Cisco Networking Academy. Qualifying schools can become members of the Cisco Networking Academy and then provide CCNA level or other level courses. Cisco Academy Instructors must be CCNA certified to be a CCAI certified instructor. Cisco often finds itself involved with technical education. With over 10,000 partnerships in over 65 countries[85] Cisco Academy program operates in many exotic locations. For example, in March 2013, Cisco announced its interest in Myanmar by investing in two Cisco Networking Academies in Yangon and Mandalay and a channel partner network.

HP Networking :

HP Networking is the networking division of Hewlett-Packard, within the HP Enterprise Business segment. HP's networking division was previously known as HP ProCurve. In April 2010, following HP's acquisition of 3Com Corporation, HP combined the ProCurve and 3Com entities as HP Networking. HP has been in the networking and switching business for decades. The HP division that became the HP ProCurve division began in Roseville, CA, in 1979. Originally it was part of HP’s Data Systems Division (DSD) and known as DSD-Roseville. Later, it was called the Roseville Networks Division (RND), then the Workgroup Networks Division (WND), before becoming the ProCurve Networking Business (PNB). The trademark filing date for the ProCurve name was February 25, 1998. On August 11, 2008 HP announced the acquisition of Colubris Networks, manufacturer of wireless capabilities, such as 802.11n. This completed on October 1, 2008 On November 11, 2009, HP announced its intent to acquire 3Com Corporation for $2.7B. In April 2010, HP completed its acquisition.

Network Architecture :

Network architecture encompasses the entire framework of an organization's computer network, including hardware components that are used for communication, network layout and topologies, physical and wireless connections, and cabling and device types, as well as software rules and protocols. The core and aggregation layers of a traditional three-tier, hierarchical model provide built-in redundancy, but this design can be inefficient for virtualized environments. The flat layout of the HP FlexNetwork Architecture is designed to provide more agility to the network and to support functionality such as virtualization, convergence, and automation.

Software-defined networking :

   The focus by enterprise data center networking technologies on virtualization has caused organizations' networks to become more automated and simplified. Several factors are driving these changes: the recognition by IT that network operations can be aligned with an organization's business goals; the request from an organization's leaders for the data center to respond rapidly to variations in demand; changes in application network traffic patterns; and changes in size and density of the data center, due to some services being offloaded to cloud computing resources, greater compute density, and an increased use of virtual technology. In turn, these changes have led to an increased demand for software-defined networking (SDN)technology from organizations.

   In 2007 HP collaborated with Stanford University to develop Ethane, an early version of the open-source standard OpenFlow upon which SDN is based. HP is a founding member of the nonprofit Open Networking Foundation. Organized in March 2011, the foundation provides support for SDN and manages the OpenFlow standard. HP is also a founding member of the Open Daylight Project, which was announced on April 8, 2013, by the Linux Foundation as an industry-supported collaboration to further the open development of SDN and Network Functions Virtualization. [17] Other founding members include Arista Networks, Big Switch Networks, Brocade, Cisco, Citrix, Ericsson, IBM, Juniper Networks, Microsoft, NEC, Nuage Networks, PLUMgrid, Red Hat, and VMware.

   Because OpenFlow is based on open standards, there is little risk of vendor lock-in when using OpenFlow-enabled products. It is claimed that networks using SDN will result in a more efficient and reliable data center infrastructure. An SDN controller serves as the core of an SDN network, managing flow controls based on protocols such as OpenFlow, and relaying communications between applications and network devices. In 2012, HP introduced the Virtual Application Networks (VAN) SDN OpenFlow controller, which is available in a software format. The HP SDN Manager application is intended to allow administrators to configure, monitor, and manage policies for SDN switches and controllers.

   In 2013 HP introduced its SDN Developer Kit and announced the SDN App Store, as well as integration with VMware NSX. The SDN App Store can be used to browse, search, purchase, and download SDN applications onto the HP VAN SDN Controller. HP certifies that applications offered in the SDN App Store will function reliably on HP network infrastructure. New HP network applications will be run on or integrated with the HP VAN SDN Controller and made available through the SDN App Store. In 2014, HP was producing more than 50 models of OpenFlow-enabled switches, including the FlexFabric 7900 switch series, which is optimized for SDN deployment. The FlexFabric 12900 switch series, also optimized for SDN deployment, was awarded SearchNetworking's Network Innovation Award in December 2013.

The HP

   Virtual Cloud Networking (VCN) SDN Application is designed to provide virtual network overlays to the OpenStack technology open source cloud computing software, serving as a bridge between the HP Helion OpenStack cloud computing platform and the HP VAN SDN controller. According to published reports, the HP VCN SDN Application will help organizations transition from legacy networks to the cloud. HP FlexNetwork Architecture unites an organization's networks in the data center, campus, and branch offices through a cost-efficient, consistent architecture, according to published reports. Four product groups make up the architecture: FlexFabric, for data centers with physical and virtual environments composed of converged computing, storage, and networking resources; FlexCampus, for converged wired and wireless networks; FlexBranch, for providing branch offices with networking and security; and Flex Management, which provides one unified management interface for the entire FlexNetwork and includes the HP Intelligent Management Center (IMC).

Western Electric began in 1869 when Elisha Gray and Enos N. Barton started a small manufacturing firm based in Cleveland, Ohio. By 1880, the company had relocated to Chicago, Illinois, and become the largest electrical manufacturing company in the United States. In 1881 the American Bell Telephone Company, founded by Alexander Graham Bell and forerunner of American Telephone & Telegraph (AT&T), purchased a controlling interest in Western Electric and made it the exclusive developer and manufacturer of equipment for the Bell telephone companies. CGE was formed in 1898 by French engineer Pierre Azaria in the Alsace region of what was then Germany and was a conglomerate involved in industries such as electricity, transportation, electronics and telecommunications. CGE would become a leader in digital communications and would also be known for producing the TGV (train à grande vitesse) high-speed trains in France.

Alcatel One Touch 535, front side. (introduced July 2003) Bell Telephone Laboratories was created in 1925 from the consolidation of the R&D organizations of Western Electric and AT&T. Bell Labs would make significant scientific advances including: the transistor, the laser, the solar cell battery, the digital signal processor chip, the Unix operating system and the cellular concept of mobile telephone service. Bell Labs researchers have won 7 Nobel Prizes. Also in 1925, Western Electric sold its International Western Electric Company subsidiary to ITT Corporation. CGE purchased the telecommunications part of ITT in the mid-1980s. AT&T re-entered the European telecommunications market in 1984 following the Bell System divestiture. Philips promoted the venture in part because its PRX public switching technology was ageing and it sought a partner to help fund the development costs of digital switching. The joint company used the existing manufacturing and development facilities in The Hague, Hilversum, Brussels, and Malmesbury as well as its U.S. resources to adapt the 5ESS system to the European market. The joint venture company AT&T & Philips Telecommunications BV doubled annual turnover between 1984 and 1987, winning major switching and transmission contracts, mainly in the effectively captive Netherlands market. In 1987 AT&T increased its holding to 60% and in 1990 it purchased the remainder of the Philips' holding. Alcatel-Lucent holds Bell Laboratories, one of the largest research and development facilities in the communications industry. Bell Labs employees have been awarded seven Nobel Prizes and the company holds over 29,000 patents. The HP Intelligent Resilient Framework (IRF) software virtualization technology is designed to provide rapid recovery from failure to the FlexNetwork, and to improve vMotion performance in VMware environments.



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